A form of opaque, usually patterned, chalcedony which is found in massive formations. The mineral is usually stained by impurities and occurs in various colours such as red, green, brown or yellow. The popular red variety is fine-grained quartz, coloured by inclusions of haematite. The colours may be arranged in bands of red or a mottled mixture of many different patterns and colours. It was named in the 14th century. From ancient times this hard and durable gemstone was cherished for its beauty and mystical properties. The jasper mentioned in the Bible as one of the stones in the breastplate of the ancient high priest and in the wall of the New Jerusalem is believed to have been a dark green, opalescent stone. Jasper is believed to bring good health as well as courage and wisdom in undertakings involving risk. Because of its physical properties, engravers of ancient Greece, Rome and Egypt carved this stone into exquisite cameos, intaglios and scarabs. Jasper was considered a sacred stone by the Native American Indians. The jasper containing a yellow colour was used to assist and protect during times of travel (spiritual and physical), that contained the red colour was thought to induce health and rebirth, bringing fresh ideas to the holder and that containing the blue colour was used to connect one with the afterù worlds. Jasper can be used in the treatment of tissue deterioration of the internal organs and for disorders of the kidneys, spleen, bladder, liver and stomach. It can also be used to treat the loss of the sense of smell and is thought to soothe the nerves.